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Yes You Can Teach Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship continues to be looked at around the world as an (if not “the”) leading answer to economic and social problems.  At the same time, entrepreneurship as a business discipline has grown substantially.  Ten years ago more than 5,000 entrepreneurship courses were being delivered at over 2,600 colleges and universities and more than 250 business plan competitions in the United States alone (Kauffman Foundation, 2006). Today those numbers have grown to the point where a website exists just to track “entrepreneurship contests, elevator pitch events, and business plan competitions”.  And yet a substantial number of questions continue to be asked about the state of entrepreneurship education, including ones about content and delivery.

Focusing a lens on entrepreneurship content begins with how the discipline is defined when taught, a question too seldom explicitly asked and answered by those designing and delivering entrepreneurship education programs. The content has been approached largely from lenses of person (who is the entrepreneur); process (business planning); and cognition (thinking) (Neck & Greene, 2010; Neck, Greene & Brush, 2014). Each lens drives the type of content included in each course.

Entrepreneurship education is also recognized for innovative teaching approaches, with courses that often underpin schools’ efforts to meet AACSB recommendations for curriculum that is taught through more integrated and experiential approaches. This also fits with the idea that the strongest approach to entrepreneurship education rises above the false dichotomy of rigor-relevance by blending academic and practitioner approaches to provide frameworks that guide action.

Entrepreneurship education is also in the unique position of being a desired mind-set and skill-set, identified as needed by students beyond the boundaries of the business and as having outcomes that create value beyond that of individual financial wealth. In fact, social entrepreneurship may be considered as one of the most rapidly growing areas in entrepreneurship education.

Since the launch of Academy of Management Learning & Education (AMLE) there have been two special issues related to entrepreneurship, as well as a variety of stand-alone articles, resource lists, and book reviews.  The first special issue enables us to take stock of AMLE’s contribution to entrepreneurship education by addressing some of the most pressing entrepreneurship education questions of our time, such as:

  1. What is the role of education in developing an entrepreneurial mind-set?
  2. Is the educational emphasis on business planning appropriate?
  3. How can education make the most of students’ desires “to do good” and help alleviate the suffering of others?
  4. To what extent is there a gap between entrepreneurship education and practice?
  5. How can students learn to identify opportunities?
  6. Are we limiting the potential of entrepreneurship education by making it the exclusive domain of business schools?

As we list below the AMLE articles in the area of entrepreneurship, we’ll continue to use these questions to guide our categories.  We’d also like to call out two notable points:  First, the more recent articles are more often related to some aspect of the practice of entrepreneurship (or entrepreneurial behavior), and second, overall, there are not that many articles.  For you entrepreneurship scholars, please think about the related learning and education questions in your particular lines of research and share them with all of us.

Virtual Collection Co-Editors: Patricia G. Greene, Babson College & Dean A. Shepherd, Indiana University

References:

  • Report to the Kauffman Panel on Entrepreneurship Curriculum in Higher Education," Report 1 on Research Projects", May 26, 2006, Ewing M. Kauffman Foundation. 101 pages.
  • Neck, H. M., and Greene, P.G. Entrepreneurship education: Known worlds and new frontiers." Journal of Small Business Management 49.1 (2011): 55-70.
  • Neck, H. M., Greene, P. G., and Brush, C. G. (Eds.). (2014). Teaching entrepreneurship: A practice-based approach. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Entrepreneurship Content in AMLE (Updated March 2017)

Entrepreneurial Mindset: What is the role of education in developing an entrepreneurial mindset?

Shepherd, D. A. 2004. Educating Entrepreneurship Students About Emotion and Learning From Failure. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(3): 274-287.

Béchard, J., & Grégoire, D. 2005. Entrepreneurship Education Research Revisited: The Case of Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(1): 22-43.

Shepherd, D. A., Douglas, E. J., & Fitzsimmons, J. R. 2008. MBA Admission Criteria and an Entrepreneurial Mind-Set: Evidence From “Western” Style MBAs in India and Thailand. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 7(2): 158-172.

Glaub, M. E., Frese, M., Fischer, S., & Hoppe, M. (2014). Increasing Personal Initiative in Small Business Managers or Owners Leads to Entrepreneurial Success: A Theory-Based Controlled Randomized Field Intervention for Evidence-Based Management. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(3), 354-379.

Planning: Is the educational emphasis on business planning appropriate?

Honig, B. 2004. Entrepreneurship Education: Toward a Model of Contingency-Based Business Planning. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(3): 258-273.

Kwong, C. C., Thompson, P., & Cheung, C. W. (2012). The Effectiveness of Social Business Plan Competitions in Developing Social and Civic Awareness and Participation. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3): 324-348.

Social entrepreneurship: How can education make the most of students' desires "to do good" and help alleviate the suffering of others?

Elmes, M., Jiusto, S., Whiteman, G., Hersh, R., & Guthey, G. 2012. Teaching Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation from the Perspective of Place and Place Making.Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(4): 533-554.

Pache, A., & Chowdhury, I. (2012). Social Entrepreneurs as Institutionally Embedded Entrepreneurs: Toward a New Model of Social Entrepreneurship Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3): 494-510.

Kickul, J., Janssen-Selvadurai, C., & Griffiths, M. D. 2012. A Blended Value Framework for Educating the Next Cadre of Social Entrepreneurs.Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3):479-493.

Smith, I. H., & Woodworth, W. P. 2012. Developing Social Entrepreneurs and Social Innovators: A Social Identity and Self-Efficacy Approach. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3): 390-407.

Interviews - Social Entrepreneurship

Driver, M. 2012. An Interview With Michael Porter: Social Entrepreneurship and the Transformation of Capitalism. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3): 421-431.

Worsham, E. L. 2012. Reflections and Insights on Teaching Social Entrepreneurship: An Interview With Greg Dees. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3): 442-452.

Kickul, J., Terjesen, S., Bacq, S., & Griffiths, M. 2012. Social Business Education: An Interview With Nobel Laureate Muhammad Yunus. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3): 453-462.

Weber, J. M. 2012. Social Innovation and Social Enterprise in the Classroom: Frances Westley on Bringing Clarity and Rigor to Program Design. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3):409-418.

Practice/experiential: To what extent is there a gap between entrepreneurship education and practice?

Gendron, G. & Greene, P.G. 2004. Practitioners' Perspectives on Entrepreneurship Education: An Interview With Steve Case, Matt Goldman, Tom Golisano, Geraldine Laybourne, Jeff Taylor, and Alan Webber. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(3): 302-314.

Edelman, L. F., Manolova, T. S., & Brush, C. G. 2008. Entrepreneurship Education: Correspondence Between Practices of Nascent Entrepreneurs and Textbook Prescriptions for Success. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 7(1): 56-70.

Patzelt, H., Williams, T. A., & Shepherd, D. A. (2014). Overcoming the walls that constrain us: The role of entrepreneurship education programs in prison. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(4), 587-620.

Gielnik, M. M., Frese, M., Kahara-Kawuki, A., Katono, I. W., Kyejjusa, S., Ngoma, M., & Oyugi, J. (2015). Action and action-regulation in entrepreneurship: Evaluating a student training for promoting entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(1), 69-94.

Rauch, A., & Hulsink, W. (2015). Putting entrepreneurship education where the intention to act lies: An investigation into the impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial behavior. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), 187-204.

Zhu, Y., Rooney, D., & Phillips, N. (2016). Practice-Based Wisdom Theory for Integrating Institutional Logics: A New Model for Social Entrepreneurship Learning and Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 15(3), 607-625.

Opportunity identification: How can students learn to identify opportunities?

DeTienne, D. R., & Chandler, G. N. 2004. Opportunity Identification and Its Role in the Entrepreneurial Classroom: A Pedagogical Approach and Empirical Test. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(3): 242-257.

Muñoz C, C. A., Mosey, S., & Binks, M. 2011. Developing Opportunity-Identification Capabilities in the Classroom: Visual Evidence for Changing Mental Frames. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10(2): 277-295.

Broadening the Curriculum: Are we limiting the potential of entrepreneurship education by making it the exclusive domain of business schools?

Cohen, A. R. 2003. Transformational Change at Babson College. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2(2):155-180.

Mustar, P. 2009. Technology Management Education: Innovation and Entrepreneurship at MINES ParisTech, a Leading French Engineering School. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8(3): 418-425.

Thursby, M. C., Fuller, A. W., & Thursby, J. 2009. An Integrated Approach to Educating Professionals for Careers in Innovation. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8(3): 389-405.

Boni, A. A., Weingart, L. R., & Evenson, S. 2009. Innovation in an Academic Setting: Designing and Leading a Business Through Market-Focused, Interdisciplinary Teams.Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8(3): 407-417.

Baker, D. F., & Baker, S. J. 2012. To “Catch the Sparkling Glow”: A Canvas for Creativity in the Management Classroom. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(4): 704-721.

Special Issue on Family Business (June 2015)  14:3

Salvato, C., Sharma, P., & Wright, M. (2015). From the Guest Editors: Learning Patterns and Approaches to Family Business Education Around the World—Issues, Insights, and Research Agenda. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(3), 307-320.

Barbera, F., Bernhard, F., Nacht, J., & McCann, G. (2015). The relevance of a whole-person learning approach to family business education: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(3), 322-346.

Konopaski, M., Jack, S., & Hamilton, E. (2015). How family business members learn about continuity. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(3), 347-364.

Sorenson, R. L., & Milbrandt, J. M. (2015). A family affair—Teaching families versus individuals: Insights gained from 24 years of family business education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(3), 366-384.

Le Breton-Miller, I., & Miller, D. (2015). Learning stewardship in family firms: For family, by family, across the life cycle. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(3), 386-399.

Lansberg, I., & Gersick, K. (2015). Educating family business owners: The fundamental intervention. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(3), 400-413.

Books and Resource Reviews

Aldrich, H. E. (2011). An Evolutionary Approach to Entrepreneurship: Selected Essays by Howard E. Aldrich.  Edward Elgar Publishing, Ltd. Reviewed by J.B. Craig.

Capron, L. & Mitchell, W.  Build, Borrow, or Buy: Solving the Growth Dilemma.  2012. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.  Reviewed by Brian Wu. [While not specifically an entrepreneurship book, the content does inform the field.]

Morris, M.H., Kuratko, D.F., & J.R. Cornwall. 2013.  Entrepreneurship Programs and the Modern University.  Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.  Reviewed by Per Davidsson.

De Massis, A., & Kotlar, J. (2015). Learning resources for family business education: A review and directions for future developments. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(3), 415-422.

Carney, M., & Jaskiewicz, P. (2015). Six books that have shaped the landscape of family business scholarship. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(3), 423-429.

Melin, L., Nordqvist, M., & Sharma, P. (Eds.). (2013). The SAGE Handbook of Family Business. Sage.  Reviewed by J. E. Jennings, T. Teay and Lloyd P. Steier.

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